The templates were demeaned and the time series were unit variance normalized before running DR. Here, we address this gap, by testing for relationships between HCT and inter-individual differences in an array of commonly employed R-fMRI derivatives, including: Statistical analysis For statistical analysis, subjects were divided into 12 age groups as indicated in Table 1. Studies of the effects of chronic hypoxia in high altitude residents have demonstrated brain functional and structural differences, which directly related to oxygen transport Yan et al. Other studies have reported that adult females have higher 2 , 7 — 9 , 17 or similar 5 , 23 platelet counts compared with adult males. The utilization of multiple univariate analytic approaches allowed us to capture various features of intrinsic activity and identify brain areas that may be impacted by HCT. After informed consent, baseline demographic data, height, and weight were recorded, and a 5-mL blood sample was obtained with 1 mL collected in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA -anticoagulated tube. Whether these associations are due to neuronal activities or non-neuronal noises requires further delineation.
Collection of specimens was not performed at a constant time of the day and social details such as smoking were not recorded. Participants were assessed for febrile illness, infections such as malaria, severe malnutrition, and clinical AIDS. The effects of hematocrit HCT that are modulated by sex: Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Infants were recruited when they reported for routine vaccination, whereas adults were recruited from the community. The median age and range values for each age group are provided in Table 1. When compared with results of other studies, there are regional and ethnic differences in reference values of hematological indices between African and Caucasian populations as we have previously described for leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets. Compared to females, males have a significantly higher level of HCT [ Other studies have reported that adult females have higher 2 , 7 — 9 , 17 or similar 5 , 23 platelet counts compared with adult males. Specifically, we used the following regression model: To exclude this nuisance variation, the global mean of a given derivative was included in the group analysis, as a nuisance regressor, to account for residual systematic variation not accounted for in the other regressors Yan et al. Depending on the approach, spatial normalization and spatial smoothing happened either before or after the derivative was calculated see next section for details. Future studies that directly manipulate HCT, using hemodilution or otherwise, are necessary to differentiate whether these effects are acute or due to neural adaptations to chronic differences in HCT. See Supplementary Materials for a comprehensive list of drug tests, medical conditions, and psychiatric diseases that lead to participants exclusion. Given well-established sex differences in HCT Levin et al. Furthermore, some of the identified associations were modulated by sex. Female sex is not an independent risk factor for red blood cell transfusion in CABG when preoperative hematocrit is included as a covariate in a multivariable model. We interpret these results as regions whose connectivity with the network of interest varies as a function of HCT. If values from the same participants are collected at least at two time points, during the dry season and the wet season, the average of the two values would help eliminate seasonality as a potential confounder. A key question that cannot be addressed by the current observational, cross-sectional design is whether the associations observed reflect current HCT level at the time of sampling, or neural adaptations to chronic differences in HCT between individuals. When the normal reference limits of the Beckman Coulter hematological analyzer, which were obtained after analyzing blood samples from healthy Malawian controls, 14 were taken into consideration 2. Brain areas impact by hematocrit HCT regardless of sex: The relationships within MPFC, as well as visual and cerebellar networks, were modulated by sex. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Whether these associations are due to neuronal activities or non-neuronal noises requires further delineation. Finally, investigations into variations in R-fMRI related to time of day or season may also benefit from including HCT, as it is associated with both Thirup,
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